J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2022 Nov 15. doi: 10.1089/jop.2022.0012. Online ahead of print.
Purpose: The purposes of this study were to investigate cytokine changes in the aqueous humor after treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) complicated with cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) and to determine whether these changes are useful prognostic indicators. Methods: This study included 12 patients (15 eyes) undergoing treatment for AIDS and CMVR. The patients received intravitreal injections and systemic intravenous treatment with ganciclovir and foscarnet sodium. The aqueous humor of each eye was sampled before treatment and before the third and fifth injections. The samples were tested to determine the concentrations of each of 27 cytokines using the Luminex 200™ liquid phase chip. Results: The concentrations of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1rα (P = 0.002), IL-1b (P = 0.001), IL-8 (P = 0.001), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (P < 0.001), interferon γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10) (P = 0.001), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (P = 0.004) in the aqueous humor before the third and fifth injections were significantly lower after than before treatment. The reductions in TNF-α (P = 0.028) and IL-1b (P = 0.028) concentrations after treatment were statistically significant compared with the postoperative visual acuity improvement (≥3 lines and <3 lines). The difference in TNF-α (P = 0.018) level before and after treatment (the difference between before treatment and before the fifth intravitreal injection) was also statistically significant compared with the number of injections (≥6 times and <6 times). Conclusion: The cytokines IL-1rα, IL-1b, IL-8, bFGF, IP-10, and TNF-α may offer new avenues for evaluation of therapeutic effect, and TNF-α and IL-1b may be important cytokines for prognostic evaluation (based on visual acuity and the number of injections) in patients suffering from AIDS and CMVR. Clinical Trial Registration: Number: ChiCTR2200056955.