J Nephrol. 2022 Nov 18. doi: 10.1007/s40620-022-01478-8. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome (TINU) is a rare condition characterised by bilateral uveitis and interstitial nephritis. There is no nationally, or internationally agreed upon treatment regimen. A systematic review was undertaken to report the renal outcomes in TINU, and treatments used.
METHODS: Medline (1969-2021) and EMBASE (1988-2021) databases were searched for primary studies, clinical practice guidelines and case reports of adult and paediatric TINU cases, as defined by Mandeville criteria. Two reviewers identified articles meeting inclusion criteria (registered with PROSPERO). Data were extracted into a synthesis table and meta-analysis performed. Quality of case series was also assessed.
RESULTS: One hundred twenty-two articles were identified, totalling 257 cases included in the meta-analysis. Females were more commonly affected than males (2:1), and median age was 19 years. GFR at follow-up correlated with nadir GFR, and the proportion with GFR <90 ml/min/1.73 m2 was statistically different between adult and paediatric groups. Of the entire cohort, 40% had GFR <90 ml/min/1.73 m2 at follow-up. Glucocorticoid monotherapy was the most common treatment (70%); other strategies included no treatment (9%) and immunosuppressant drugs (e.g. azathioprine), mostly in steroid-resistant cases, or as ‘steroid-sparing’ alternatives.
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of literature regarding TINU is limited to case reports and case series. There are no prospective trials assessing the effects of different treatments on renal outcomes, and currently employed treatment strategies are physician-specific without a reliable evidence-base. Prospective data collection as part of multicentre trials should be a research focus to improve the evidence-base.