J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2022 Nov 18. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2022.0153. Online ahead of print.
Background: Osteoporosis is common among older adults. Women are more likely to have osteoporosis than men. The prevalence varies with race/ethnicity, with the highest prevalence observed among non-Hispanic, Asian women. Prior studies identified a negative association between smoking and bone mineral density (BMD). The association between smoking and osteoporosis has not been investigated according to race/ethnicity. Materials and Methods: We included 4,226 U.S. adults aged 50 years or older with complete information on smoking history, BMD, and other independent variables from the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Design-based multinomial logistic regression was utilized to estimate prevalence odds ratios (POR) of osteoporosis (T-score ≤ -2.5) and of low bone density (T-score between -1.0 and -2.5) in relation to lifetime smoking pack-years, stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. Results: Participants were 61.5 (standard error 0.21) years old on average and 48% women (n = 2,027). Among women, a smoking history ≥30 pack-years was positively associated with osteoporosis (POR: 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-4.06). Similar POR were observed among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Mexican American women. However, POR for ≥30 pack-years and low bone density were positive but not statistically significant. Among men, null associations of smoking history, osteoporosis, and low bone density were observed, except for a positive association of ≥30 pack-years and low bone density among non-Hispanic Black men. Conclusion: Osteoporosis was twice as prevalent among women who smoked ≥30 pack-years than among women who never smoked, regardless of race/ethnicity. Smoking history and osteoporosis were not associated among men.