Nevin Manimala Statistics

Easternmost distribution of Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) in Türkiye: implications for the putative contact zone between B. bufo and B. verrucosissimus

Genetica. 2022 Nov 24. doi: 10.1007/s10709-022-00175-5. Online ahead of print.


The geographic range of a species is crucial for obtaining information on the exact distribution of the species. The geographic data are important for delimiting distinct species or exploring the degree of differentiation among different populations of a species. The local details of species boundaries facilitate the study of the importance of phylogeographic background, secondary contacts, and hybrid zones, along with the relations between the species and its extrinsic environmental factors. In the present study, the range boundaries of Bufo bufo and Bufo verrucosissimus in the north-eastern region of Türkiye were delineated using an integrative taxonomic approach that utilized a combination of molecular and morphological data. According to the mtDNA results of the present study, B. bufo inhabits a single distribution from İyidere town to Çayeli town in Rize, while B. verrucosissimus is distributed from Şavşat town of Artvin to Ardeşen town in Rize. In addition, the two species coexist in Pazar, Hemşin, and Çamlıhemşin towns in Rize. The demographic analyses indicated a distinct population expansion for the B. verrucosissimus species after the Last Glacial Maximum, while the same did not occur for B. bufo. The univariate and multivariate statistical analyses conducted for the morphological data of the two species corroborated the presence of a putative contact zone between B. bufo and B. verrucosissimus. In summary, the present study resolved the non-distinct geographic boundaries between B. bufo and B. verrucosissimus species and also revealed the easternmost distribution of B. bufo in Türkiye. In addition, important evidence on the putative contact zone between the two species was indicated using an integrative taxonomic approach.

PMID:36418607 | DOI:10.1007/s10709-022-00175-5

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