J Perinat Med. 2022 Nov 25. doi: 10.1515/jpm-2022-0452. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the morphological characteristics of the placentas from COVID-19 positive mothers in regard to the trimester of COVID-19 infection onset and low weight molecular heparin (LMWH) treatment.
METHODS: Placentas were collected in the period April 1st till September 1st 2021 after delivery at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University Hospital Split, Croatia, and sent for pathological examination. Medical history and pathology reports were used to collect the data. Pregnant women were divided based on the onset of COVID-19 infection and stratified into low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)+ or LMWH-. Depending on the data distribution, the following test were used: chi-squared test. Student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test.
RESULTS: In 38% of patients the onset of COVID-19 infection was the 1st trimester of pregnancy, in 27% in the 2nd and 35% of women were infected in the 3rd trimester The fetal vascular malperfusion (FVM) occurrence was statistically significantly higher in the LMWH- group and if the onset of infection was in the 2nd trimester, while the perivillous fibrin deposition was most likely to happen if the COVID-19 infection that occured in the 1st trimester of pregnancy.
CONCLUSIONS: The onset of COVID-19 infection has the influence on trophoblast damage and subsequent morphological appearance of the placenta. LMWH use in COVID positive pregnant women decreases the rate of the FVM in examined placentas.