Dig Dis Sci. 2022 Dec 23. doi: 10.1007/s10620-022-07793-1. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common gastrointestinal disease in which infection is a serious complication. Understanding its bacterial spectrum and antibiotic resistance is of great significance for treatment.
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study analyzed the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care database with the aim of identifying the distribution characteristics of pathogenic bacteria in AP patients.
METHODS: First, 2089 AP patients were classified and analyzed statistically according to culture results. Second, the bacterial profile, antibiotic resistance, and antibiotic-use data of positive culture group were analyzed. Third, logistic regression analysis was used to identify the rick factors of culture results, and culture results correlations with mortality.
RESULTS: This study included 1486 patients in negative culture group, 603 patients in positive cultures. Enterococcus spp. (71%), Enterococcus faecium (61%), and Staphylococcus aureus coagulase-positive (54%) exhibited the highest proportions of drug resistance. Logistic regression revealed five factors related to positive culture (the number of antibiotics, length of stay in hospital, length of stay in intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, and parenteral nutrition) and four factors related to distribution of multidrug-resistant bacterial infection (age, hemoglobin, length of stay in hospital, and duration on antibiotics).
CONCLUSIONS: This study found that enteric bacteria were the most common source of infection (26.7%). Carbapenems, penicillins containing enzyme inhibitors, fifth-generation cephalosporins, oxazolidinones, and some of the aminoglycoside antibiotics had high sensitivity, which can guide the use of clinical empiric antibiotics. Positive culture was an independent risk factor for in-hospital all-cause mortality of AP patients.