PLoS One. 2022 Dec 27;17(12):e0279472. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0279472. eCollection 2022.
The automatic sorting of construction waste (CW) is an essential procedure in the field of CW recycling due to its remarkable efficiency and safety. The classification of CW is the primary task that guides automatic and precise sorting. In our work, a new method of CW classification based on two-level fusion is proposed to promote classification performance. First, statistical histograms are used to obtain global hue information and local oriented gradients, which are called the hue histogram (HH) and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), respectively. To fuse these visual features, a bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) method is applied to code HOG descriptors in a CW image as a vector, and this process is named B-HOG. Then, based on feature-level fusion, we define a new feature to combine HH and B-HOG, which represent the global and local visual characteristics of an object in a CW image. Furthermore, two base classifiers are used to learn the information from the color feature space and the new feature space. Based on decision-level fusion, we propose a joint decision-making model to combine the decisions from the two base classifiers for the final classification result. Finally, to verify the performance of the proposed method, we collect five types of CW images as the experimental data set and use these images to conduct experiments on three different base classifiers. Moreover, we compare this method with other extant methods. The results demonstrate that our method is effective and feasible.