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Amikacin liposome and Mycobacterium avium complex: A systematic review

PLoS One. 2022 Dec 27;17(12):e0279714. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0279714. eCollection 2022.


INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is increasing globally. Macrolide-based multidrug regimens have been recommended as the first-line treatment for patients with MAC pulmonary disease. However, developing macrolide resistance was associated with poor treatment outcomes and increased mortality. In 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved liposomal amikacin for inhalation (LAI) to treat refractory MAC pulmonary disease. The current systematic review aimed to evaluate LAI’s outcomes and adverse events in MAC pulmonary disease.

METHODS: The systematic search was performed in PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials (CENTRAL) up to March 8, 2022. The search terms included Mycobacterium avium complex, MAC, amikacin, and liposomal amikacin.

RESULTS: After reviewing 1284 records, four papers met the inclusion criteria, including three clinical trials and one prospective cohort study. These studies showed that adding LAI to guideline-based therapies can increase sputum culture conversion rate and achieve early sustained (negative sputum culture results for 12 months with treatment) and durable (negative sputum culture results for three months after treatment) negative sputum culture. In addition, extended LAI use was a potential benefit in patients considered refractory to initial treatment. The most prevalent treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE) reported in the LAI group were the respiratory TEAE.

CONCLUSIONS: LAI could increase the sputum culture conversion rate and achieve early sustainable, durable negative sputum culture. However, additional large-scale research is required to confirm the results.

PMID:36574432 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0279714

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