PLoS One. 2022 Dec 29;17(12):e0279580. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0279580. eCollection 2022.
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome is a group of metabolic risk factors which are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type2 diabetes. Nowadays, several studies have shown that the burden of metabolic syndrome is increasing among epileptic patients, and leads to MS-associated complications, including cardiovascular disease. However, getting published documents has been limited in Ethiopia and the study area. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the magnitude and associated factors of metabolic syndrome among epileptic patients in Dessie Comprehensive Specialized Hospital in compression with respective controls.
METHODS: Hospital-based comparative cross-sectional study design was implemented from June 25 to August 20, 2021. A total of 204 participants with an equal number of cases and controls (n = 102 each) were included. The data was collected through face-to-face interviews and biochemical analyses such as fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles were done through the enzymatic technique. The magnitude of metabolic syndrome was determined using both National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation definition criteria. The STATA version 14 was used for statistical data analysis, and a comparison of categorical and continuous variables was done with χ2 and an independent t-test, respectively. The multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with metabolic syndrome, and variables having a P-value of <0.05 were considered statistically significant.
RESULT: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the epileptic group was (25.5% in National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III and 23.5% in International Diabetes Federation criteria), whereas it was 13.7% in National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III and 14.7% in International Diabetes Federation criteria among control groups. According to the International Diabetes Federation criteria, low physical activity (adjusted odds ratio = 4.73, 95% CI: 1.08-20.68), taking multiple antiepileptic drugs (adjusted odds ratio = 8.08, 95% CI: 1.52-42.74), having a total cholesterol level of ≥ 200 mg/dl (adjusted odds ratio = 5.81, 95%: 1.32-41.13) and body mass index (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.16-2.11) were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome among epileptic participants. Applying National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, taking multiple antiepileptic drugs (adjusted odds ratio = 6.81, 95% CI: 1.29-35.92), having a total cholesterol level > 200 mg/dl (adjusted odds ratio = 7.37, 95% CI: 1.32-41.13) and body mass index (adjusted odds ratio = 1.53, 96% CI: 1.16-2.01) were also significantly associated.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among epileptic patients was higher than that of control groups and reaches statistically significant by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Being on multiple antiepileptic drugs, body mass index, having low physical activity and raised total cholesterol were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome among the epileptic group. Therefore, it is better to focus on controlling weight, having sufficient physical exercise, and regular monitoring of total cholesterol levels in epileptic patients.