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Impact of intraventricular hemorrhage symmetry on endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus: an institutional experience of 50 cases

J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2022 Dec 30:1-7. doi: 10.3171/2022.12.PEDS22492. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: The success rate of endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization (ETV/CPC) in the management of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) following intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in infants is not well defined. Furthermore, parameters of IVH at initial presentation have not been tested for predictive associations of ETV/CPC success in this setting. The authors sought to summarize their institutional outcomes to identify possible predictors of ETV/CPC success within this niche.

METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all ETV/CPC procedures performed at the authors’ institution for PHH between 2011 and 2021. Patients were screened against a set of selection criteria including follow-up time of at least 6 months. Associations with ETV/CPC failure were evaluated using regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses.

RESULTS: A total of 50 patients satisfied all criteria. There were 32 (64%) male and 18 (36%) female patients with a mean gestational birth age of 26 weeks. The presenting IVH was symmetric in 30 (60%) and asymmetric in 20 (40%) patients, and the maximum IVH grade was IV in 30 (60%) patients overall. Six months after the procedure, ETV/CPC success was seen in 18 (36%) patients and failure in 32 (64%) patients. The median overall follow-up was 42 months, at which point ETV/CPC success was observed in 11 (22%) patients and ETV/CPC failure in 39 (78%) patients. Regression analyses indicated that radiological IVH symmetry was a statistically significant predictor of ETV/CPC failure at 6 months (OR 3.46, p = 0.04) and overall (OR 5.33, p = 0.03). Overall rates of failure were 89% versus 62% (p = 0.02) when comparing symmetric versus asymmetric IVH patients, and time to failure occurred at median times of 1.4 versus 6.5 months (p = 0.03) after the initial procedure. Higher maximum IVH grade and younger age at initial ETV/CPC only trended toward increased failure rates. When the etiology component of the ETV Success Score was adjusted such that symmetric IVH was scored 0, the area under the curve for failure at 6 months increased from 0.58 to 0.69.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, approximately 1 in 5 infants with PHH can expect to not require further intervention following ETV/CPC. The authors demonstrate that IVH symmetry is statistically predictive of ETV/CPC failure in this setting independent of all other parameters, where PHH infants with symmetric IVH are more likely to experience failure, and sooner, than PHH infants with asymmetric IVH. When discussing possible success rates of ETV/CPC for PHH, IVH symmetry should be considered.

PMID:36585872 | DOI:10.3171/2022.12.PEDS22492

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