BMC Public Health. 2023 Jan 3;23(1):7. doi: 10.1186/s12889-022-14914-y.
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic deprivation (SED) is known to influence cardiovascular health. However, studies analyzing the relationship between deprivation and circulatory system diseases (CSD) in Central and Eastern Europe are limited. This study aimed to assess the relationship between SED and mortality due to CSD at a population level in 66 sub-regions of Poland.
METHODS: The 2010-2014 data regarding mortality and SED components were obtained from the Central Statistical Office. An area-based SED index was calculated based on the higher education rates, employment structure, wages, unemployment, and poverty. The dynamics of changes in mortality due to CSD was expressed by the number of deaths prevented or postponed (DPP) in terciles of the SED index. The associations between the mortality from CSD and SED index were analyzed using multivariate Poisson regression models and generalized estimating equations.
RESULTS: Among men, the percentage of DPP in 2014 was 13.1% for CSD, 23.4% for ischemic heart disease (IHD), and 21.4% for cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD). In the case of women, the proportion of DPP was 12.8, 25.6, and 21.6%, respectively. More deprived sub-regions experienced a greater decrease in CSD-related mortality than less deprived sub-regions. The disparity in mortality reduction between more deprived and less deprived sub-regions was even more pronounced for women. After adjusting for smoking prevalence, average BMI, population density, and changes in mortality over time, it was found that the SED index over the 2010-2014 time period was significantly associated with CSD- and IHD-related mortality for men (respectively 5.3 and 19.5% expected mortality increase per 1-unit increase of SED index), and with IHD- and CeVD-related mortality for women (respectively 30.3 and 23.0% expected mortality increase per 1-unit increase of SED index).
CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences in mortality changes due to CSD in Poland could be observed in relation to socioeconomic deprivation, resulting in reduced health inequalities. To reduce CSD mortality, more comprehensive preventive measures, including approaches addressing the socioeconomic factors, mainly poverty, education and employment, are needed, particularly in less urbanized areas.