Ann Surg Oncol. 2023 Jan 4. doi: 10.1245/s10434-022-13035-5. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) is increasingly used for women with breast cancer who are not candidates for conservative surgery. The authors previously reported satisfying results with NSM after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT).
METHODS: From 2010 to 2020, 1072 women underwent mastectomy at the authors’ institution. In this group, 433 NSMs were performed (40%). The only contraindications to NSM were close proximity to the nipple-areola complex (NAC), bloody discharge, and Paget disease.
RESULTS: In 112 cases involving 111 women, NSM followed NACT (group 1), whereas it was performed as primary surgery in 321 instances involving 306 women (group 2). At 5 years, local relapse was 7% in group 1 and 2% in group 2, although in the multivariate analysis, locoregional relapses (LRRs) did not differ between the two groups. An increased incidence of local relapse was associated with higher tumor stage (stage III; p = 0.046) and age younger than 51 years (p = 0.038). For 34 (30.3%) of the 111 women in group 1 with a pathologic complete response (pCR), no LRRs were recorded. Only one NAC recurrence was observed. Overall survival with each tumor stage did not differ between the two groups. No differences in complications were observed. Cosmetic results were satisfying in 83.8% of the cases and did not get worse after NACT.
CONCLUSIONS: The study data definitively confirm that NSM is safe even after NACT, with good cosmetic results and complications comparable with those in the primary surgery setting. Tumor stage and age were the only independent factors for local relapse. Patients with pCR enjoyed optimal locoregional control.