Nevin Manimala Statistics

Using Frailty Measures to Predict Functional Outcomes and Mortality After Type II Odontoid Fracture in Elderly Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Global Spine J. 2023 Jan 10:21925682221149394. doi: 10.1177/21925682221149394. Online ahead of print.


STUDY DESIGN: Single-center retrospective cohort study.

OBJECTIVES: Type II odontoid fractures occur disproportionately among elderly populations and cause significant morbidity and mortality. It is a matter of debate whether these injuries are best managed surgically or conservatively. Our goal was to identify how treatment modalities and patient characteristics correlated with functional outcome and mortality.

METHODS: We identified adult patients (>60 years) with traumatic type II odontoid fractures. We used multivariate regression controlling for patient demographics, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score, modified Frailty Index (mFI-5 and mFI-11), fracture displacement, and conservative vs operative treatment.

RESULTS: Of the 59 patients (mean age 77.9 years), 24 underwent surgical intervention and 35 underwent conservative management. Operatively managed patients were younger (73.4 vs 80.6 years, P < .001) and had higher degree of fracture displacement (3.5 vs 1.0 mm, P = .002) than conservatively managed patients but no other differences in baseline characteristics. Twenty-four patients (40.7%) died within the study period (median time to death: 376 days). There were no differences between treatment groups in functional outcomes (mRS or Frankel Grade) or mortality (33.3% in operative group vs 45.7%, P = .34). There was a statistically significant correlation between higher presentation mRS score and subsequent mortality on multivariate analysis (OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.04-4.10, P = .039), whereas surgical intervention, age, GCS score, CCI, mFI-5, mFI-11, sex, and fracture displacement were not significantly correlated.

CONCLUSIONS: Mortality after type II odontoid fractures in elderly patients is common. mRS score at presentation may help predict mortality more accurately than other patient factors.

PMID:36626221 | DOI:10.1177/21925682221149394

By Nevin Manimala

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