Mol Cancer. 2023 Jan 12;22(1):10. doi: 10.1186/s12943-022-01708-4.
Skin cancer has emerged as the fifth most commonly reported cancer in the world, causing a burden on global health and the economy. The enormously rising environmental changes, industrialization, and genetic modification have further exacerbated skin cancer statistics. Current treatment modalities such as surgery, radiotherapy, conventional chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy are facing several issues related to cost, toxicity, and bioavailability thereby leading to declined anti-skin cancer therapeutic efficacy and poor patient compliance. In the context of overcoming this limitation, several nanotechnological advancements have been witnessed so far. Among various nanomaterials, nanoparticles have endowed exorbitant advantages by acting as both therapeutic agents and drug carriers for the remarkable treatment of skin cancer. The small size and large surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles escalate the skin tumor uptake through their leaky vasculature resulting in enhanced therapeutic efficacy. In this context, the present review provides up to date information about different types and pathology of skin cancer, followed by their current treatment modalities and associated drawbacks. Furthermore, it meticulously discusses the role of numerous inorganic, polymer, and lipid-based nanoparticles in skin cancer therapy with subsequent descriptions of their patents and clinical trials.