Phytother Res. 2023 Jan 14. doi: 10.1002/ptr.7729. Online ahead of print.
Several preclinical studies have focused on the beneficial effects of garlic on cardiovascular diseases, but the results were inconsistent. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of garlic powder tablets and aged garlic extract (AGE) in CAD patients, mainly focusing on blood pressure, coronary artery calcification, lipid profile, and inflammatory markers. We searched PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Google Scholar to identify randomized controlled trials which examined garlic’s effect on CAD patients. The standardized mean difference with 95% CI was calculated using fixed-effect or random-effect models. Garlic has shown statistically significant changes of HDL (SMD = 0.18; 95% CI = -0.00 to 0.37; p = .05); LDL (SMD = -0.27; 95% CI = -0.46 to -0.08; p = .004), apolipoprotein-A (SMD = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.24 1.13; p = .002), C-RP (SMD = -0.59; 95% CI = -0.92 to -0.25; p = .0007), IL-6 (SMD = -1.08; 95% CI = -2.17 to 0.01; p = .05), homocysteine (SMD = -0.66; 95% CI = -1.04 to -0.28; p = .0007) and CAC score (SMD = -1.61; 95% CI = -2.66 to -0.57; p = .003). In the case of subgroup analysis, the overall effect was significantly effective in reducing TC, LDL levels and improving HDL levels in CV risk patients. Our study findings provide consistent evidence that intake of garlic reduces CVD risk factors. However, garlic could be considered a safe natural medicine to debilitate inflammation in CAD patients.