BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2023 Jan 21;23(1):39. doi: 10.1186/s12872-023-03077-2.
BACKGROUND: We examined the effect of switching from angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) to angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) on plasma levels of natriuretic peptides and myocardial remodeling.
METHODS: This is a prospective study that included 11 patients with heart failure (HF) treated with ARNI. The patients were divided into two groups: 5 patients who continued treatment with sacubitril/valsartan 194/206 mg/day (ARNI-continue group) and 6 patients who were switched to valsartan 160 mg/day (ARB-switch group). The primary endpoint was percent change (%Change) in plasma A-, B-, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (ANP, BNP, and NT-proBNP) levels from the baseline to week 24. The secondary endpoint was the change in echocardiographic parameters related to myocardial remodeling from the baseline to week 24.
RESULTS: ANP levels in the ARB-switch group significantly decreased (from 1155.7 ± 592.6 pg/mL to 231.6 ± 233.8 pg/mL, p = 0.035), whereas those in the ARNI-continue group were not significant (p = 0.180). The %Change of decrease in ANP levels was significantly greater in the ARB-switch group than the ARNI-continue group (- 76.9% vs. -9.1%, p = 0.009). BNP levels were not significantly different between the baseline and week 24 in both groups. NT-proBNP levels in the ARB-switch group increased from 1185.3 ± 835.6 pg/mL to 1515.2 ± 1213.5 pg/mL, although the changes were not statistically significant (p = 0.345). The %Change of increase in NT-proBNP levels was significantly greater in the ARB-switch group than the ARNI-continue group (57.9% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.016). In the ARB-switch group, there was a significant increase in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume (from 41.3 ± 24.1 mL/m2 to 71.4 ± 8.8 mL/m2, p = 0.043) and LV peak-systolic wall stress (from 187.0 ± 42.7 × 103 dynes/cm2 to 279.7 ± 34.1 × 103 dynes/cm2, p = 0.012) from the baseline to week 24 and a trend toward a decrease in LV ejection fraction (p = 0.080). In the ARNI-continue group, no differences in echocardiographic parameters were observed from the baseline to week 24.
CONCLUSION: Switching from ARNI to ARB may worsen HF due to returning to myocardial remodeling induced by a sustained decline in ANP levels.