J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2023 Jan 22:1-13. doi: 10.1080/15321819.2023.2168557. Online ahead of print.
Alopecia areata (AA) is a disorder with several etiologies. The evidence suggests that the absolute copy number of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA), as well as proportion of mutated mtDNA copies, determines disease onset. This study aims to quantify the relative index of the mtDNA copy number in patients with AA and healthy controls and correlate the results with the existing clinical information. This case-control study included 50 patients with AA and 50 age- and sex-coordinated healthy persons as controls. The severity of AA was weighed using the Severity of Alopecia Tool and Kavak’s classification. The relative index of the mtDNA copy number was measured by real-time qPCR. Significant statistical difference was observed between cases and controls regarding mean mtDNA copy number, p < .001. There was significant positive correlation with SALT score (p = 0.001). A cutoff value of >1.619 N/µL could significantly diagnose AA cases (p < .001), and a cutoff value of > 1.36 N/µL could discriminate mild AA cases from those with moderate AA (p = 0.007). The relative index of mtDNA copy number is significantly elevated in AA cases and could be helpful in diagnosing and evaluating AA severity.