J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2023 Jan 23;25(1):2. doi: 10.1186/s12968-023-00917-0.
BACKGROUND: This study compares three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution (HR) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE; 3D HR-LGE) imaging using a respiratory navigated, electrocardiographically-gated inversion recovery gradient echo sequence with conventional LGE imaging using a single-shot phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP; PSIR-bSSFP) sequence for routine clinical use in the pediatric population.
METHODS: Pediatric patients (0-18 years) who underwent clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with both 3D HR-LGE and single-shot PSIR-bSSFP LGE between January 2018 and June 2020 were included. Image quality (0-4) and detection of LGE in the left ventricle (LV) (per 17 segments), in the right ventricle (RV) (per 3 segments), as endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE), at the hinge points, and at the papillary muscles was analyzed by two blinded readers for each sequence. Ratios of the mean signal intensity of LGE to normal myocardium (LGE:Myo) and to LV blood pool (LGE:Blood) were recorded. Data is presented as median (1st-3rd quartiles). Wilcoxon signed rank test and chi-square analyses were used as appropriate. Inter-rater agreement was analyzed using weighted κ-statistics.
RESULTS: 102 patients were included with median age at CMR of 8 (1-13) years-old and 44% of exams performed under general anesthesia. LGE was detected in 55% of cases. 3D HR LGE compared to single-shot PSIR-bSSFP had longer scan time [4:30 (3:35-5:34) vs 1:11 (0:47-1:32) minutes, p < 0.001], higher image quality ratings [3 (3-4) vs 2 (2-3), p < 0.001], higher LGE:Myo [23.7 (16.9-31.2) vs 5.0 (2.9-9.0), p < 0.001], detected more segments of LGE in both the LV [4 (2-8) vs 3 (1-7), p = 0.045] and RV [1 (1-1) vs 1 (0-1), p < 0.001], and also detected more cases of LGE with 13/56 (23%) of patients with LGE only detectable by 3D HR LGE (p < 0.001). 3D HR LGE specifically detected a greater proportion of RV LGE (27/27 vs 17/27, p < 0.001), EFE (11/11 vs 5/11, p = 0.004), and papillary muscle LGE (14/15 vs 4/15, p < 0.001). Inter-rater agreement for the recorded variables ranged from 0.42 to 1.00.
CONCLUSIONS: 3D HR LGE achieves greater image quality and detects more LGE than conventional single-shot PSIR-bSSFP LGE imaging, and should be considered an alternative to conventional LGE sequences for routine clinical use in the pediatric population.