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Effect of Mini-Dose Ready-to-Use Liquid Glucagon on Preventing Exercise-Associated Hypoglycemia in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes Care. 2023 Jan 23:dc221145. doi: 10.2337/dc22-1145. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: To determine effect of mini-dose, ready-to-use glucagon on incidence of exercise-associated hypoglycemia (EAH) in adults with type 1 diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Individuals initially participated in the in-clinic training phase for which they were randomly assigned to a crossover design: 150 µg glucagon (treatment arm A) or placebo (arm B) subcutaneously, immediately before exercise, plus 50% reduction in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) basal delivery rate. Completers were then rerandomly assigned in the 12-week outpatient investigational phase: arm A, B, or open-label C, 150 µg glucagon alone. Participants were to undertake their usual aerobic exercise at moderate to high intensity for 30 to 75 min in real-world settings. Data were analyzed for incidence of level 1 hypoglycemia based on self-monitoring blood glucose and for various secondary and exploratory end points.

RESULTS: Of 48 participants who completed the training phase, 45 continued to the outpatient phase. For all exercise sessions in the outpatient phase (n = 795), incidence of level 1 hypoglycemia was lower in both glucagon arms (A, 12% [P < 0.0001]; C, 16% [P = 0.0032]) than in the placebo arm (B, 39%). Times below range, in range, and above range from 0 to 300 min did not significantly differ among treatment arms. Consumed grams of exercise carbohydrates were lower with glucagon use than with placebo use but did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.12). Adverse events were similar among treatment arms.

CONCLUSIONS: Mini-dose glucagon with or without 50% reduction in CSII basal delivery rate may help to decrease EAH incidence in adults with type 1 diabetes.

PMID:36689626 | DOI:10.2337/dc22-1145

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