Probl Endokrinol (Mosk). 2022 Jul 31;68(6):12-21. doi: 10.14341/probl12892.
BACKGROUND: The issues of monitoring the effectiveness of iodine deficiency prevention programs are an important component in the process of iodine elimination. Neonatal thyrotropin (TSH) has been used as a criterion for the severity of iodine deficiency since 1994, however, the question of the “cut-off point” of the neonatal TSH level has been widely discussed in the recent literature.
AIM: Evaluate the criterion for neonatal hyperthyroidism above 5 mIU/l from the perspective of monitoring iodine deficiency and establish a «cut-off point» on the model of healthy pregnant women with adequate iodine status.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in a population of pregnant women in the city of Tyumen, with the formation of observation groups according to the level of iodine excretion in the urine – the main group (with adequate iodine status throughout the entire gestation period) and the comparison group (women with iodine levels less than 150 μg/l). The results of neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in children of women participating in the study were evaluated. The frequency of neonatal TSH above 5mIU/l was assessed in the observation groups. ROC-analysis was performed and a «cut-off point» of the level of neonatal TSH was established as an indicator of iodine deficiency.
RESULTS: The median urinary iodine concentration in the population of pregnant women in Tyumen was 159.05 μg/l, the incidence of goiter was 0.38%, the incidence of neonatal hyperthyroidism above 5 mIU/l was 2.88%, which characterizes adequate iodine intake in the pregnant population women. The frequency of neonatal TSH above 5 mIU/l in newborns from women from the main group was 1.47%, and in the comparison group – 9.3% (p = 0.076). ROC analysis revealed a threshold value of neonatal TSH of 2.77 mIU/l at the cut-off point, which corresponded to the highest value of the Youden index. Urinary iodine concentrations greater than 150 μg/l were predicted for nTSH values below this value.
CONCLUSION: Analysis of databases of neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism makes it possible to effectively, quickly and at minimal cost annually assess the iodine status in the population. The established «cut-off point» of neonatal TSH in the model of healthy pregnant women with adequate iodine intake in our work is 2.77 mIU/l, the absence of statistically significant differences in the incidence of neonatal hyperthyroidism above 5 mIU/l from women with different iodine status during pregnancy indicate the need to revise the existing threshold of 5 mIU/l and may be an incentive to conduct large-scale studies in regions with different iodine supply.