Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2023 Jan 25. doi: 10.1007/s12602-023-10043-z. Online ahead of print.
Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that may modulate the immune response by altering the maturation and function of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial gene expression of dendritic cells challenged with LPS and probiotics. Immature dendritic cells were obtained from human CD14+ monocytes and challenged with E. coli LPS and probiotics Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus (LR-32) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5) at a ratio DC:bacteria of 1:10. The analysis of gene expression was performed by RT-qPCR using the Kit RT2 human antibacterial response. In the supernatant, the cytokines secretion was determined by ELISA. Tukey post-ANOVA with p at 5% was used for statistical analysis. LPS showed the higher upregulation of 29 genes compared with the groups where probiotics were added to LPS, including genes related to an inflammatory response like BIRC3, CASP1, CCL5, CXCL1, IL12B, IL18, MYD88, NLRP3, RIPK1, and TIRAP. Similarly, LPS increased the transcription of genes enrolled with apoptosis such as CARD6, CASP1, IRF5, MAP2K1, MAP2K4, MAPK1, MYD88, NLRP3, RIPK2, TNF, TNFRSF1A, and XIAP when compared to probiotics groups (p < 0.05). Although probiotics decrease several genes upregulated by LPS, the transcription of encoded cytokines IL12A, IL12B, IL1B, IL6, CXCL8, and TNF genes was maintained upregulated by probiotics, except for IL18, which was downregulated by LA-5. LA-5 led to a higher transcription of IL1B, IL6, and CXCL-8 which was followed by the secretion of these proteins by ELISA. The results suggest that probiotics attenuate the transcription of inflammatory and immune response genes caused by LPS.