J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2023 Jan 24. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-22-00752. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: As rates of anatomic and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (SA) continue to grow, an increase in the number of osteoporotic patients undergoing SA, including those who have sustained prior fragility fractures, is expected. The purpose of this study was to examine short-term, implant-related complication rates and secondary fragility fractures after SA in patients with and without a history of fragility fractures.
METHODS: A propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study was done using the PearlDiver database to characterize the effect of antecedent fragility fractures in short-term complications after SA. Rates of revision SA, periprosthetic fractures, infection, and postoperative fragility fractures were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Risks of these complications were also studied in patients with and without preoperative osteoporosis treatment. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.
RESULTS: A total of 91,212 SA patients were identified, with 13,050 (14.3%) experiencing a fragility fracture within the 3 years before SA. Two years after SA, there were increased odds of periprosthetic fracture (odds ratio [OR] 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68 to 2.99), fragility fracture (OR 9.11, 95% CI 8.43 to 9.85), deep infection (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.12), and all-cause revision SA (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.96) within those patients who had experienced a fragility fracture within 3 years before their SA. Patients who were treated for osteoporosis with bisphosphonates and/or vitamin D supplementation before their SA had similar rates of postoperative periprosthetic fractures, fragility fractures, and all-cause revision SA to those who did not receive pharmacologic treatment.
CONCLUSION: Sustaining a fragility fracture before SA portends substantial postoperative risk of periprosthetic fractures, infection, subsequent fragility fractures, and all-cause revision SA at the 2-year postoperative period. Pharmacotherapy did not markedly decrease the rate of these complications. These results are important for surgeons counseling patients who have experienced prior fragility fractures on the risks of SA.