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Causal Relationships Between Glycemic Traits and Myopia

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2023 Mar 1;64(3):7. doi: 10.1167/iovs.64.3.7.


PURPOSE: Little is known about whether sugar intake is a risk factor for myopia, and the influence of glycemic control remains unclear, with inconsistent results reported. This study aimed to clarify this uncertainty by evaluating the link between multiple glycemic traits and myopia.

METHODS: We employed a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) design using summary statistics from independent genome-wide association studies. A total of six glycemic traits, including adiponectin, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and proinsulin levels, were used as exposures, and myopia was used as the outcome. The inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) method was the main applied analytic tool and was complemented with comprehensive sensitivity analyses.

RESULTS: Out of the six glycemic traits studied, we found that adiponectin was significantly associated with myopia. The genetically predicted level of adiponectin was consistently negatively associated with myopia incidence: IVW (odds ratio [OR] = 0.990; P = 2.66 × 10-3), MR Egger (OR = 0.983; P = 3.47 × 10-3), weighted median method (OR = 0.989; P = 0.01), and weighted mode method (OR = 0.987; P = 0.01). Evidence from all sensitivity analyses further supported these associations. In addition, a higher HbA1c level was associated with a greater risk of myopia: IVW (OR = 1.022; P = 3.06 × 10-5).

CONCLUSIONS: Genetic evidence shows that low adiponectin levels and high HbA1c are associated with an increased risk of myopia. Given that physical activity and sugar intake are controllable variables in blood glycemia treatment, these findings provide new insights into potential strategies to delay myopia onset.

PMID:36867130 | DOI:10.1167/iovs.64.3.7

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