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Influence of contraceptive use and other socio-demographic factors on under-five child mortality in Bangladesh: semi-parametric and parametric approaches

Contracept Reprod Med. 2023 Mar 3;8(1):22. doi: 10.1186/s40834-023-00217-z.


BACKGROUND: The under-five child mortality rate is a widely accepted indicator of the development of a country as well as reflects the country’s health care system and quality of life. Although the child mortality rate is decreasing over time in Bangladesh, the rate is still high among South Asian countries. The target of the Sustainable Development Goal-3.2 is to reduce the under-five mortality rate in all countries of the world to 25 or fewer per 1000 live births by 2030. The purpose of this study is to identify the socio-demographic factors which have an influence on under-five child mortality in Bangladesh as well as to examine whether contraceptive use has any effect on under-five mortality in Bangladesh. Finally, a comparison has been made between the results obtained from the Cox proportional Hazard Model and Weibull model to find out which model is more efficient for the study data.

METHODS: For the study, data was extracted from Bangladesh Demographic Health Surveys 2017-2018 (BDHS 2017-2018). The Kaplan-Meier survival function has been used to demonstrate the survival probabilities of under-five children. While multivariate analyses of the Cox Proportional Hazard model and Weibull model are used to estimate the under-five mortality risks for various predictors.

RESULTS: The study results show consistently higher survival probabilities for children of mothers who used modern contraceptives during survival periods. Other significant predictors for under-five child mortality include mother’s education level (higher education), mother’s age (> 20), wealth index (rich), source of drinking water (tube well), and division (Chittagong, Khulna, Mymensingh). Weibull model has given more efficient results than the Cox Proportional Hazard model except for one covariate (water source).

CONCLUSION: Contraceptives use significantly improves the survival chances of children under-five age. This underscores the importance of contraceptive use in the pursuit of a sustainable reduction in under-five mortality in Bangladesh. It also intensifies the need to address the present level of contraceptive use in the country. This may not be due to the use of contraceptives in itself but may be due to the substantial biological and socioeconomic benefits that are concomitant with contraceptive use which may promote both maternal and child health. So, Extra effort should be given by the policymakers to ensure the use of modern contraceptive methods to improve the under-five survival in Bangladesh.

PMID:36864535 | DOI:10.1186/s40834-023-00217-z

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