J Gen Intern Med. 2023 Mar 3. doi: 10.1007/s11606-023-08094-7. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Habitually skipping breakfast may promote the initiation and progression of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, which have never been systematically explored in large-scale prospective studies.
METHODS: We prospectively examined the effects of breakfast frequency on the occurrence of GI cancers among 62,746 participants. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of GI cancers were calculated by Cox regression. The CAUSALMED procedure was used to perform the mediation analyses.
RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 5.61 (5.18 ~ 6.08) years, 369 incident GI cancer cases were identified. Participants who consumed 1-2 times breakfasts per week exhibited an increased risk of stomach (HR = 3.45, 95% CI: 1.06-11.20) and liver cancer (HR = 3.42, 95% CI: 1.22-9.53). Participants who did not eat breakfast had an elevated risk of esophageal (HR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.05-7.03), colorectal (HR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.34-4.01), liver (HR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.23-4.71), gallbladder, and extrahepatic bile duct cancer (HR = 5.43, 95% CI: 1.34-21.93). In the mediation effect analyses, BMI, CRP, and TyG (fasting triglyceride-glucose) index did not mediate the association between breakfast frequency and the risk of GI cancer incidence (all P for mediation effect > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Habitually skipping breakfast was associated with a greater risk of GI cancers including esophageal, gastric, colorectal, liver, gallbladder, and extrahepatic bile duct cancer.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Kailuan study, ChiCTR-TNRC-11001489. Registered 24 August, 2011-Retrospectively registered, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=8050.
PMID:36869181 | DOI:10.1007/s11606-023-08094-7