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Association between dietary patterns and biomarkers in connection with diabetes mellitus in adolescents: A systematic review

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2022 Dec 26:S0939-4753(22)00492-6. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2022.12.005. Online ahead of print.


AIMS: To perform a systematic review to investigate the association between adolescents’ a posteriori dietary patterns with diabetes-related biomarkers (fasting blood glucose, fasting insulinemia, glycated hemoglobin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR)).

DATA SYNTHESIS: Review registered with PROSPERO under number CRD42020185369. Studies with adolescents aged 10-19 years that identified dietary patterns by a posteriori methods were included. The databases used included: PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Lilacs/BVS, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ProQuest Dissertations&Theses Global and Capes Theses Bank and Brazilian Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations. Risk of bias was assessed via the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality tool. Eight cross-sectional studies that evaluated 6438 adolescents (55.5% females) were included. For fasting blood glucose, the results were inconsistent and some studies found no association for the dietary patterns called traditional (57%), Western (42%) and healthy (28%). For the fasting insulinemia and HOMA-IR outcomes, the Western dietary pattern showed a positive association or higher means in 60% and 50% of the studies, respectively. No studies that evaluated glycated hemoglobin were found.

CONCLUSION: Fasting insulinemia and HOMA-IR outcomes were positively associated with the Western dietary patterns. The studies reviewed did not present consistent evidence of an association with western, healthy and traditional dietary patterns with fasting blood glucose, as the results were conflicting or did not show statistical significance.

PMID:36870914 | DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2022.12.005

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