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Early Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Traumatically Injured Patients: A National Trauma Database Analysis

Am Surg. 2023 Mar 6:31348231161082. doi: 10.1177/00031348231161082. Online ahead of print.


INTRODUCTION: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in acute trauma patients is a poorly characterized event. While ECMO most commonly has been deployed for advanced cardiopulmonary or respiratory failure following initial resuscitation, growing levels of evidence for out of hospital cardiac arrest support early ECMO cannulation as part of resuscitative efforts. We sought to perform a descriptive analysis evaluating traumatically injured patients, who were placed on ECMO, during their initial resuscitation period.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the Trauma Quality Improvement Program Database from 2017 to 2019. All traumatically injured patients who received ECMO within the first 24 hours of their hospitalization were assessed. Descriptive statistics were used to define patient characteristics and injury patterns associated with the need for ECMO, while mortality represented the primary outcome evaluated.

RESULTS: A total of 696 trauma patients received ECMO during their hospitalization, of which 221 were placed on ECMO within the first 24 hours. Early ECMO patients were on average 32.5 years old, 86% male, and sustained a penetrating injury 9% of the time. The average ISS was 30.7, and the overall mortality rate was 41.2%. Prehospital cardiac arrest was noted in 18.2% of the patient population resulting in a 46.8% mortality. Of those who underwent resuscitative thoracotomy, a 53.3% mortality rate was present.

CONCLUSION: Early cannulation for ECMO in severely injured patients may provide an opportunity for rescue therapy following severe injury patterns. Further evaluation regarding the safety profile, cannulation strategies, and optimal injury patterns for these techniques should be evaluated.

PMID:36876475 | DOI:10.1177/00031348231161082

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