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Effect of sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin on proteinuria and kidney function progression in patients with non-diabetic glomerulonephritis: a pilot superiority randomized controlled trial

Int Urol Nephrol. 2023 Mar 6. doi: 10.1007/s11255-023-03539-8. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Amelioration of proteinuria is one of main treatment targets in patients with glomerulonephritis, yet the remission rates are suboptimal.

AIM OF THE STUDY: To examine the effect of the sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor (empagliflozin) on proteinuria and kidney function progression, in patients with glomerulonephritis not due to diabetic kidney diseases.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients were recruited. The entry criteria were diagnosis of glomerulonephritis, and proteinuria (proteinuria ≥ 500 mg⁄g) in spite of the use of the maximal tolerated dose of RAAS blocking agents together with specific immunosuppression treatment regimens. Group 1 (Empagliflozin arm): 25 patients who received 25 mg of empagliflozin once daily for 3 months as add-on to their regular treatment protocol (RAAS blockers and immunosuppression). Group 2 (Placebo arm): 25 patients treated with RAAS blockers and immunosuppression. The primary efficacy endpoints were the change in creatinine eGFR, and proteinuria 3 months after starting treatment.

RESULTS: Progression of proteinuria was lower with empagliflozin as compared to placebo (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.72, p = 0.002). Decline in eGFR was lower with empagliflozin as compared to placebo; however, this was statistically not significant (odds ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.2, p = .31). The percentage change in proteinuria was greater with empagliflozin as compared to placebo (median, – 77 (- 97-105) vs – 48 (- 80-117).

CONCLUSION: Empagliflozin has a favorable effect on amelioration of proteinuria in patients with glomerulonephritis. Empagliflozin has tendency to preserve kidney function in patients with glomerulonephritis as compared to placebo; however, longer term studies are required.

PMID:36872420 | DOI:10.1007/s11255-023-03539-8

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