Nevin Manimala Statistics

Modelling chloroform in indoor swimming pool air and water: the influences of internal air circulation and occupants

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2023 Mar 7. doi: 10.1007/s11356-023-25978-7. Online ahead of print.


The release of chloroform from water to air in an indoor swimming pool (ISP) exhibits complex physicochemical interactions among many variables, including environmental conditions, occupant activities, and geometry of the ISP. By combining the relevant variables, a structured mathematical model, the double-layer air compartment (DLAC) model, was developed to predict the level of chloroform in ISP air. A physical parameter, the indoor airflow recycle ratio (R), was incorporated into the DLAC model due to internal airflow circulation resulting in the ISP structural configuration. The theoretical R-value for a specific indoor airflow rate (vy) can be found by fitting the predicted residence time distribution (RTD) to the simulated RTD from computational fluid dynamics (CFD), showing a positive linear relationship with vy. The mechanical energies induced by occupant activities were converted into a lumped overall mass-transfer coefficient to account for the enhanced mass transfer of chloroform from the water into the air and mixing in ISP air. The DLAC model predicted that chloroform air concentrations were statistically less accurate without considering the influence of R compared with the online open-path Fourier transform infrared measurements. A novel index, the magnitude of emission (MOE) from swimmers, was linked to the level of chloroform in ISP water. The capability of the DLAC model associated with the MOE concept may facilitate upgrading the hygiene management of ISPs, including the ability to administer necessary chlorine additives in pool water and monitor the chloroform in ISP air.

PMID:36881228 | DOI:10.1007/s11356-023-25978-7

By Nevin Manimala

Portfolio Website for Nevin Manimala