Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2023 Mar 9. doi: 10.1007/s11356-023-26203-1. Online ahead of print.
This research was conducted in the urban area of Patna region, the capital and largest city of Bihar, which is part of the Indo-Gangetic alluvium plain. This study aims to identify the sources and processes controlling groundwater’s hydrochemical evolution in the Patna region’s urban area. In this research, we evaluated the interplay between several measures of groundwater quality, the various possible causes of groundwater pollution, and the resulting health risks. Twenty groundwater samples were taken from various locations and examined to determine the water quality. The average EC of the groundwater in the investigated area was 728 ± 331.84 µS/cm, with a range of around 300-1700 µS/cm. Positive loadings were seen for total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl–), and sulphate (SO42-) in principal component analysis (PCA), demonstrating that these variables accounted for 61.78% of the total variance. In the groundwater samples, the following main cations are the most prevalent such as Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+, while the dominant anions are HCO3– > Cl– > SO42-. The elevated HCO3– and Na+ ions indicate that carbonate mineral dissolution might affect the study area. The result demonstrated that 90% of samples fall into the Ca-Na-HCO3 type, remaining in the mixing zone. The presence of the NaHCO3 kind of water is suggestive of shallow meteoric water, which may have originated from the river Ganga that is located nearby. The results show that a multivariate statistical analysis and graphical plots successfully identify the parameters controlling groundwater quality. In accordance with guidelines for safe drinking water, the electrical conductivity and potassium ion concentrations in the groundwater samples are 5% higher than acceptable levels. People who take large amounts of salt replacements report feeling tight in the chest, vomiting, having diarrhoea, developing hyperkalaemia, having trouble breathing, and even experiencing heart failure.
PMID:36892700 | DOI:10.1007/s11356-023-26203-1