Nevin Manimala Statistics

Association of Posttraumatic Headache With Symptom Burden After Concussion in Children

JAMA Netw Open. 2023 Mar 1;6(3):e231993. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.1993.


IMPORTANCE: Headache is the most common symptom after pediatric concussion.

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether posttraumatic headache phenotype is associated with symptom burden and quality of life 3 months after concussion.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a secondary analysis of the Advancing Concussion Assessment in Pediatrics (A-CAP) prospective cohort study, conducted September 2016 to July 2019 at 5 Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC) network emergency departments. Children aged 8.0-16.99 years presenting with acute (<48 hours) concussion or orthopedic injury (OI) were included. Data were analyzed from April to December 2022.

EXPOSURE: Posttraumatic headache was classified as migraine or nonmigraine headache, or no headache, using modified International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition, diagnostic criteria based on self-reported symptoms collected within 10 days of injury.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Self-reported postconcussion symptoms and quality-of-life were measured at 3 months after concussion using the validated Health and Behavior Inventory (HBI) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory-Version 4.0 (PedsQL-4.0). An initial multiple imputation approach was used to minimize potential biases due to missing data. Multivariable linear regression evaluated the association between headache phenotype and outcomes compared with the Predicting and Preventing Postconcussive Problems in Pediatrics (5P) clinical risk score and other covariates and confounders. Reliable change analyses examined clinical significance of findings.

RESULTS: Of 967 enrolled children, 928 (median [IQR] age, 12.2 [10.5 to 14.3] years; 383 [41.3%] female) were included in analyses. HBI total score (adjusted) was significantly higher for children with migraine than children without headache (estimated mean difference [EMD], 3.36; 95% CI, 1.13 to 5.60) and children with OI (EMD, 3.10; 95% CI, 0.75 to 6.62), but not children with nonmigraine headache (EMD, 1.93; 95% CI, -0.33 to 4.19). Children with migraine were more likely to report reliable increases in total symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 2.13; 95% CI, 1.02 to 4.45) and somatic symptoms (OR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.29 to 5.68) than those without headache. PedsQL-4.0 subscale scores were significantly lower for children with migraine than those without headache only for physical functioning (EMD, -4.67; 95% CI, -7.86 to -1.48).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study of children with concussion or OI, those with posttraumatic migraine symptoms after concussion had higher symptom burden and lower quality of life 3 months after injury than those with nonmigraine headache. Children without posttraumatic headache reported the lowest symptom burden and highest quality of life, comparable with children with OI. Further research is warranted to determine effective treatment strategies that consider headache phenotype.

PMID:36884251 | DOI:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.1993

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