Int J Equity Health. 2023 Mar 9;22(1):40. doi: 10.1186/s12939-023-01847-0.
BACKGROUND: Out-of-pocket health expenditure is the proportion of total health expenditure that is paid by individuals and households at the time of health service. Hence, the objective of this study is to assess the incidence and intensity of catastrophic health expenditure and associated factors among households in non-community-based health insurance districts in the Ilubabor zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia.
METHOD: A community-based cross-sectional study design was employed in the Ilubabor zone on non-community-based health insurance scheme districts from August 13 to September 2, 2020, and 633 households participated in the study. A multistage one cluster sampling method was used to select three districts out of seven districts. Data was collected by using a structured mix of open and close-ended pre -tested questionnaires by face-to-face interviewing. A micro-costing/bottom up approach was used for all household expenditure. After checking its completeness, all household consumption expenditure was done by mathematical analysis using Microsoft Excel. Binary and multiple logistic were done using 95%CI and significance was declared at P < 0.05.
RESULTS: The number of households that participated in the study was 633, with a response rate of 99.7%. Out of 633 households surveyed, 110 (17.4%) were in catastrophe, which exceeds 10% of total household expenditure. After medical care expenses, about 5% of the households moved downward from the middle poverty line to extreme poverty. Out-of-pocket payment AOR: 31.201: 95% CI (12.965-49.673), daily income less than 1.90 USD AOR: 2.081: 95% CI (1.010-3.670), living a medium distance from a health facility AOR: 6.219: 95% CI (1.632-15.418), and chronic disease AOR: 5.647: 95% CI (1.764-18.075.
CONCLUSION: In this study, family size, average daily income, out of pocket payment and chronic diseases were statistically significant and independent predictors for household catastrophic health expenditure. Therefore, to overcome financial risk, the Federal Ministry of Health should develop different guidelines and modalities by considering household per capita and income to improve the enrolment of community-based health insurance. Also, the regional health bureau should improve their budget share of 10% to increase the coverage of poor households. Strengthening financial risk protection mechanisms, such as community-based health insurance, could help to improve healthcare equity and quality.
PMID:36894937 | DOI:10.1186/s12939-023-01847-0