Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2023 Feb 21:S2152-2650(23)00063-0. doi: 10.1016/j.clml.2023.02.005. Online ahead of print.
Current frontline therapies for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients have significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS). This has led to interest in minimal residual disease negativity (MRDng) as an efficacy-response biomarker and possible surrogate endpoint. A meta-analysis was conducted to explore the surrogacy of MRD for PFS and quantify the relationship between MRDng rates and PFS at the trial level. A systematic search was conducted on phase II and III trials reporting MRDng rates along with median PFS (mPFS) or PFS hazard ratios (HR). Weighted linear regressions were conducted relating mPFS to MRDng rates, and relating PFS HRs to either odds ratios (OR) or rate differences (RD) for MRDng in comparative trials. A total of 14 trials were available for the mPFS analysis. log(MRDng rate) was moderately associated with log (mPFS), with a slope of β = 0.37 (95% CI, 0.26-0.48) and R2 = 0.62. A total of 13 trials were available for the PFS HR analysis. Treatment effects on MRDng rates were correlated with the corresponding effects on PFS: log (PFS HR) and log (MRDng OR) had a moderate association with β = -0.36 (95% CI, -0.56 to -0.17) and R2 = 0.53 (95% CI, 0.21-0.77); log (PFS HR) and the MRDng RD had a stronger association with slope β = -0.03 (95% CI, -0.04 to -0.02) and R2 = 0.67 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.86). MRDng rates moderately associate with PFS outcomes. MRDng RDs are more strongly associated with HRs than MRDng ORs, with evidence suggestive of potential surrogacy.