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Evaluation of antithrombotic prophylaxis and thrombotic events in children with COVID-19 or MIS-C: A tertiary pediatric center experience

Arch Pediatr. 2023 Feb 7:S0929-693X(23)00016-7. doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2023.01.006. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) are associated with a risk of hypercoagulability and thrombotic events. We aimed (a) to evaluate the demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings as well as the incidence of thrombotic events of COVID-19 and MIS-C in children and (b) to determine the role of antithrombotic prophylaxis.

METHODS: A single-center retrospective study evaluated hospitalized children with COVID-19 or MIS-C.

RESULTS: The study group consisted of 690 patients, 596 (86.4%) diagnosed with COVID-19 and 94 (13.6%) diagnosed with MIS-C. Antithrombotic prophylaxis was used for 154 (22.3%) patients: 63 patients (10.6%) in the COVID-19 group and 91 (96.8%) patients in the MIS-C group. Use of antithrombotic prophylaxis was statistically higher in the MIS-C group (p<0.001). Patients who received antithrombotic prophylaxis were of older median age, were more commonly male, and had more frequent underlying diseases than those without prophylaxis (p<0.001, p<0.012, p<0.019, respectively). The most common underlying condition was obesity in patients who received antithrombotic prophylaxis. Thrombosis was observed in one (0.2%) patient in the COVID-19 group with a thrombus in the cephalic vein, two (2.1%) patients in the MIS-C group, with a dural thrombus in one patient and a cardiac thrombus in the other patient. The patients with thrombotic events were previously healthy and had mild disease.

CONCLUSION: In our study, thrombotic events were rare compared with previous reports. We used antithrombotic prophylaxis for most children with underlying risk factors; perhaps for this reason, we did not observe thrombotic events in children with underlying risk factors. We suggest that patients diagnosed with COVID-19 or MIS-C be closely monitored for thrombotic events.

PMID:36907731 | DOI:10.1016/j.arcped.2023.01.006

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