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Respiratory aspiration during treatment with clozapine and other antipsychotics: a literature search and a pharmacovigilance study in VigiBase

Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2023 Mar 15. doi: 10.1080/17425255.2023.2192401. Online ahead of print.


INTRODUCTION: Antipsychotics (APs), during treatment or overdose, may be associated with respiratory aspiration.

AREAS COVERED: A PubMed search on September 30, 2022, provided 3 cases of respiratory aspiration during clozapine therapy and 1 case during an AP overdose. VigiBase records of respiratory aspiration associated with APs from inception until September 5, 2021, were reviewed. VigiBase, the World Health Organization’s global pharmacovigilance database, uses a statistical signal for associations called the information component (IC).

EXPERT OPINION: The ICs (and IC025) were 2.1 (and 2.0) for APs, 3.2 (and 3.0) for clozapine, 2.6 (and 2.4) for quetiapine, and 2.5 (and 2.2) for olanzapine. Cases of respiratory aspiration associated with APs included: 137 overdose/suicide cases (64 fatal) and 609 cases during treatment (385 fatal) including 333 taking clozapine (238 fatal). In logistic regression models of fatal outcomes, the odds ratios, OR, and (95% confidence intervals, CI) of significant independent variables were: a) 2.3 – 2.6 for clozapine in 3 samples of AP treatment of varying size, b) 1.9 (CI 1.0 to 3.5) for geriatric age in 284 patients on clozapine treatment, and c) 1.8 (CI 1.1 – 3.2) for antidepressant co-medication in 276 patients on non-clozapine APs. Multiple AP pharmacological mechanisms may explain respiratory aspiration.

PMID:36920343 | DOI:10.1080/17425255.2023.2192401

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