Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2023 Mar 14. doi: 10.1111/aogs.14544. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: The global sequence of the pathogenesis of preterm labor remains unclear. This study aimed to compare amniotic fluid concentrations of extracellular matrix-related proteins (procollagen, osteopontin and IL-33), and of cytokines (IL-19, IL-6, IL-20, TNFα, TGFβ, and IL-1β) in asymptomatic women with and without subsequent spontaneous preterm delivery.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used amniotic fluid samples of singleton pregnancy, collected by amniocentesis between 16 and 20 weeks’ gestation, without stigmata of infection (i.e., all amniotic fluid samples were tested with broad-range 16 S rDNA PCR to distinguish samples with evidence of past bacterial infection from sterile ones), during a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to perform a nested case-control laboratory study. Cases were women with a spontaneous delivery before 37 weeks of gestation (preterm group). Controls were women who gave birth at or after 39 weeks (full term group). Amniotic fluid concentrations of the extracellular matrix-related proteins and cytokines measured by immunoassays were compared for two study groups.
CLINICALTRIALS: gov: NCT00718705.
RESULTS: Between July 2008 and July 2011, in 12 maternal-fetal medicine centers in France, 166 women with available PCR-negative amniotic fluid samples were retained for the analysis. Concentrations of procollagen, osteopontin, IL-19, IL-6, IL-20, IL-33, TNFα, TGFβ, and IL-1β were compared between the 37 who gave birth preterm and the 129 women with full-term delivery. Amniotic fluid levels of procollagen, osteopontin, IL-19, IL-33, and TNFα were significantly higher in the preterm than the full-term group. IL-6, IL-20, TGFβ, and IL-1β levels did not differ between the groups.
CONCLUSIONS: In amniotic fluid 16 S rDNA PCR negative samples obtained during second-trimester amniocentesis, extracellular matrix-related protein concentrations (procollagen, osteopontin and IL-33), together with IL-19 and TNFα, were observed higher at this time in cases of later spontaneous preterm birth.