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Clinical efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies in preventing hospitalisation and mortality among patients infected with Omicron variants: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Rev Med Virol. 2023 Mar 16:e2439. doi: 10.1002/rmv.2439. Online ahead of print.


Until now, the treatment protocols for COVID-19 have been revised multiple times. The use and approval of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for COVID-19 treatment represent exceptional achievements in modern science, technology and medicine. SARS-CoV-2 Omicron evasion of pre-existing immunity represents a serious public health problem nowadays. This systematic review with meta-analysis provided comprehensive and up-to-date evidence of the clinical efficacy of therapeutic anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs against Omicron subvariants in COVID-19 patients and included 10 articles. The prevalence of hospitalisation among Omicron-positive patients treated with anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs was 2.8% (89/3169) while it controls (Omicron-positive patients treated with other therapies) 11% (154/1371). There was a statistically significantly different number of hospitalisations between the two studied groups in favour of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs treated group. (OR = 0.56, 95% CI OR = 0.41-0.77, p < 0.001, respectively). Eight deaths (0.30%) out of 2619 Omicron-positive patients occurred in the anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs treated group, while in the control group (Omicron-positive patients treated with other therapies), 27 patients died out of 1401 (1.93%). There was a significantly different number of deaths between the two studied groups in favour of Omicron-positive patients treated with anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs (OR = 0.38, 95% CI OR = 0.17-0.85, p = 0.020). Using sotrovimab in treating Omicron-positive patients indicated a reduction of hospitalisation and mortality for 49% and 89% in favour of sotrovimab, respectively (OR = 0.51, 95% CI OR = 0.34-0.79, p = 0.002; OR = 0.11, 95% CI OR = 0.03-0.39, p = 0.001). We could only provide evidence of the positive impact in reducing hospitalisation and mortality rates when anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs were used to treat patients infected with Omicron variants BA.1 or BA.2 and not on other Omicron variants.

PMID:36924087 | DOI:10.1002/rmv.2439

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