Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2023 Mar 8;44(3):1657-1667. doi: 10.13227/j.hjkx.202201279.
Heavy metal pollution in testing ranges is one of the most widely concerning environmental problems. The ammunition static detonation test area, the bomb falling area, and the living area of a testing range in Jilin were selected as the study objects. The contents of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in 112 topsoil samples and two soil profiles were analyzed, and their distribution characteristics and sources were analyzed in detail. After that, the pollution degree and potential ecological risk of heavy metals were investigated using multiple pollution index assessment methods. The results showed that the average contents of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn in the soil of the ammunition static detonation test area were higher than the soil background values in Jilin province, and the contents of Cu, Zn, As, and Cd showed strong spatial heterogeneity. The average concentrations of As, Cd, and Ni in the soil of the bomb falling area exceeded their background values. The average contents of As and Cd in the soil of the living area were higher than the background values, and the variation coefficients of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cr were relatively high, indicating that they may have been affected by human activities. In different test areas, the contents of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn in the soil samples were significantly different (P<0.05). The ammunition static detonation test area was more strongly affected by the test activities than the bomb falling area, and the heavy metal contents in the surface layer of the soil profile were significantly higher. There was no obvious vertical migration of heavy metals in the soil profiles. The results of multivariate statistics and source identification analysis using absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) showed that Zn, Pb, and Cd were mainly affected by pollution sources related to test activities; Cr and Ni were mainly affected by natural sources of soil forming materials; and the sources of As and Cu were more complicated. The geo-accumulation index showed that Cd in the three areas and Ni in the bomb falling area belonged to pollution level 1 (uncontaminated to moderately contaminated). The Nemerow comprehensive pollution index showed that the pollution levels among the different functional areas were:living area>ammunition static detonation test area>bomb falling area, and the three functional areas were slightly polluted. The potential ecological risk index showed that the study area was at moderate ecological risk level, and Cd was considered to be the main soil pollution factor.
PMID:36922226 | DOI:10.13227/j.hjkx.202201279