Nevin Manimala Statistics

Understanding Barriers to Timely Diagnosis and Intervention Among Immigrant Children With Hearing Loss

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2023 Mar 16. doi: 10.1002/ohn.322. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: Identify the age at diagnosis and intervention of immigrant and/or non-English-speaking children with hearing loss (HL) and risk factors associated with delays. Identify barriers for non-English-speaking caregivers of deaf/hard-of-hearing children.

STUDY DESIGN: Sequential mixed methods.

SETTING: Tertiary care center in an urban city.

METHODS: The analysis includes descriptive statistics, and 1-way and 2-way analysis of variance of the retrospective chart review. The quantitative study demonstrated foreign-born experienced disparities, so we conducted semistructured interviews on a subset of non-English-speaking families in the cohort that was then thematically analyzed using a human-centered design strategy.

RESULTS: We divided 532 children into 3 groups: US-born with English as the preferred language (N = 294), US-born and non-English language preferred (N = 173), and foreign-born (N = 67). The laterality of HL and pure-tone averages were similar among the groups (p = .972 and .071, respectively). Age at diagnosis and time to the intervention were significantly different (39.7, 31.5, 75.8 months, p < .001 and 24.6, 29.2, 48.9 months, p = .001, respectively). Ages at diagnosis and intervention were associated with birthplace (p = .005, p = .0005, respectively) but not preferred language (p = .667, p = .343, respectively). Included in the qualitative interviews were Mandarin- (n = 5), Arabic- (n = 4), and Spanish-speaking families (n = 3). Insights revealed participants’ quest for anticipatory guidance and social support, the consequences of cultural stigma, and the complexity of caring for a child with HL in an immigrant family.

CONCLUSION: Foreign-born children with HL have significant delays in diagnosis and intervention compared to US-born children. For non-English-speaking parents, the diagnosis of HL presents challenges beyond that of the immigrant experience.

PMID:36924195 | DOI:10.1002/ohn.322

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