Adv Biomed Res. 2023 Jan 27;12:10. doi: 10.4103/abr.abr_219_21. eCollection 2023.
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific complication, has been associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in observational studies. CMV-specific T cell response plays a major role in viremia clearance. We explored whether CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) status is associated with preeclampsia in pregnant women.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: CMV-specific CMI was assessed using CMV-QuantiFERON (QF-CMV) assay in plasma serum of 35 women with preeclampsia as well as 35 normal pregnant controls, retrospectively. Participants were matched for gestational age in a 1:1 ratio. The proportion of reactive results, the mean value of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) level produced in mitogen and antigen tubes were compared between the cases and controls through Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, respectively. The odds ratio and confidence interval were calculated as well.
RESULTS: No significant differences observed between demographic characteristics of the case and control groups. The QF-CMV assay turned reactive (QF-CMV [ + ]) Women with preeclampsia had lower mean IFN-γ levels in antigen tube compared with normal pregnant controls. There were no statistically significant differences in the value of mitogen tube between case and controls women with suppressed CMV-CMI were 6.3 times more likely to have preeclampsia. This result even strengthened after adjustment for age, gestational age, and gravidity.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support an association between suppressed CMV-specific CMI and preeclampsia.