Vestn Oftalmol. 2023;139(1):35-45. doi: 10.17116/oftalma202313901135.
PURPOSE: This study provides a detailed analysis of the bioinorganic chemical composition of lens substance in patients with senile cataract using classical and spatial statistics methods.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 30 isolated human lenses. The light scattering ability (LSA) of the lens substance was evaluated using an original method. Additionally, distribution of chemical elements in the lens substance was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS). Measurements by all methods were carried out in a single coordinate space, which made it possible to compare the spatial correlation of different parameters.
RESULTS: Small-angle light scattering of the lens substance has been quantitatively characterized for the first time. In contrast to the conventional norm, in senile cataract the accumulation fields of the majority of ion-forming elements (including Na, P, K, Cl) are distributed along the lines repeating the geometry of the lens capsule. At the same time, the light scattering ability of certain areas of the lens is significantly correlated with changes in the concentrations of Na, P, K, Ca in these areas. In particular, one ion-forming element can be distinguished – Na: spatial change of its concentration in senile cataract is strongly associated with a local change in LSA of the lens with opacities clustering of any degree. Thus, a change in the nature of the Na accumulation in the lens volume can be considered the main marker of senile cataract formation.
CONCLUSION: The distribution pattern of ion-forming elements indicates that the loss of barrier properties in the capsule plays a significant role in the development of senile cataract.