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Trends in pediatric tuberculosis diagnosis utilizing xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/Rifampicin in a poor-resource, high-burden region: A retrospective, multicenter study

Int J Mycobacteriol. 2023 Jan-Mar;12(1):77-81. doi: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_1_23.


BACKGROUND: The burden of tuberculosis (TB) in Nigeria remains high, and diagnosis in children, a challenge. We aimed to document yield from Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin (MTB/RIF) as a mode of diagnosis for children and the variables associated with a positive result.

METHODS: This was a retrospective review of TB treatment cards of children aged 0-15 years managed from January 2017 to December 2021 across six public tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The data obtained were analyzed using the descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.

RESULTS: Of 1489 children commenced on TB treatment, 1463 (97.9%) had sufficient data for analysis the median age of study participants was 60 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 24, 120), and 814 (55.6%) were males. Xpert MTB/RIF test was performed in 862 (59%) participants and MTB was detected in 171 (19.8%) participants, of which 6.4% (11/171) had RIF resistance reported. The use of Xpert MTB/RIF rose from 56.5% in 2017 to 64% in 2020 but fell to 60.9% in 2021. We found that older age (> 10 years), the presence of pulmonary TB (PTB), and a negative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status were associated with positive Xpert MTB/RIF tests (P = 0.002, 0.001, and 0.012, respectively).

CONCLUSION: The utilization of Xpert MTB/RIF in children increased in the years before the COVID-19 pandemic. Factors associated with MTB detection by Xpert MTB/RIF include older age, the presence of PTB, and a negative HIV status. Clinical and radiological evaluation continues to play vital roles in the diagnosis of childhood TB in Nigeria.

PMID:36926767 | DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_1_23

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