Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2023 Mar 18. doi: 10.1007/s11356-023-26451-1. Online ahead of print.
Epidemiological evidence for the relationship between cadmium exposure and mortality in specific chronic kidney disease (CKD) populations remains scarce. We aimed to explore the relationships between cadmium concentrations in urine and blood and all-cause mortality among CKD patients in the USA. This cohort study was composed of 1825 CKD participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (1999-2014) who were followed up to December 31, 2015. All-cause mortality was ascertained by matching the National Death Index (NDI) records. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality in relation to urinary and blood cadmium concentrations by Cox regression models. During an average follow-up period of 82 months, 576 CKD participants died. Compared with the lowest quartiles, HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality associated with the fourth weighted quartiles of urinary and blood cadmium concentrations were 1.75 (1.28 to 2.39) and 1.59 (1.17 to 2.15), respectively. Furthermore, the HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality per ln-transformed IQR increment in cadmium concentrations in urine (1.15 μg/g UCr) and blood (0.95 μg/L) were 1.40 (1.21 to 1.63) and 1.22 (1.07 to 1.40), respectively. Linear concentration-response relationships between urinary and blood cadmium concentrations and all-cause mortality were also found. Our findings suggested that increased cadmium concentrations in both urine and blood significantly contributed to enhanced mortality risk in CKD patients, thus highlighting that efforts to reduce cadmium exposure may reduce mortality risk in high-risk populations with CKD.
PMID:36933131 | DOI:10.1007/s11356-023-26451-1