Clin Ther. 2023 Mar 1:S0149-2918(23)00071-1. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2023.02.007. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: It has been reported that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA), and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) have a role in modulation of inflammation associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study assessed the effect of these drug classes on COVID-19-related outcomes.
METHODS: Using a COVID-19 linkable administrative database, we selected patients aged ≥40 years with at least 2 prescriptions of DPP-4i, GLP-1 RA, or SGLT-2i or any other antihyperglycemic drug and a diagnosis of COVID-19 from February 15, 2020, to March 15, 2021. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were used to calculate the association between treatments and all-cause and in-hospital mortality and COVID-19-related hospitalization. A sensitivity analysis was performed by using inverse probability treatment weighting.
FINDINGS: Overall, 32,853 subjects were included in the analysis. Multivariable models showed a reduction of the risk for COVID-19 outcomes for users of DPP-4i, GLP-1 RA, and SGLT-2i compared with nonusers, although statistical significance was reached only in DPP-4i users for total mortality (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97). The sensitivity analysis confirmed the main results reaching a significant reduction for hospital admission in GLP-1 RA users and in-hospital mortality in SGLT-2i users compared with nonusers.
IMPLICATIONS: This study found a beneficial effect in the risk reduction of COVID-19 total mortality in DPP-4i users compared with nonusers. A positive trend was also observed in users of GLP-1 RA and SGLT-2i compared with nonusers. Randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm the effect of these drug classes as potential therapy for the treatment of COVID-19.