Environ Res. 2023 Mar 16:115683. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2023.115683. Online ahead of print.
Management of cancer metastasis has been associated with remarkable reduction in progression of cancer cells and improving survival rate of patients. Since 90% of mortality are due to cancer metastasis, its suppression can improve ability in cancer fighting. The EMT has been an underlying cause in increasing cancer migration and it is followed by mesenchymal transformation of epithelial cells. HCC is the predominant kind of liver tumor threatening life of many people around the world with poor prognosis. Increasing patient prognosis can be obtained via inhibiting tumor metastasis. HCC metastasis modulation by EMT and HCC therapy by nanoparticles are discussed here. First of all, EMT happens during progression and advanced stages of HCC and therefore, its inhibition can reduce tumor malignancy. Moreover, anti-cancer compounds including all-trans retinoic acid and plumbaging, among others, have been considered as inhibitors of EMT. The EMT association with chemoresistance has been evaluated. Moreover, ZEB1/2, TGF-β, Snail and Twist are EMT modulators in HCC and enhancing cancer invasion. Therefore, EMT mechanism and related molecular mechanisms in HCC are evaluated. The treatment of HCC has not been only emphasized on targeting molecular pathways with pharmacological compounds and since drugs have low bioavailability, their targeted delivery by nanoparticles promotes HCC elimination. Moreover, nanoparticle-mediated phototherapy impairs tumorigenesis in HCC by triggering cell death. Metastasis of HCC and even EMT mechanism can be suppressed by cargo-loaded nanoparticles.