Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2023 Aug 23;28(8):175. doi: 10.31083/j.fbl2808175.
BACKGROUND: The cause of ulcerative colitis (UC) is not yet fully understood. Previous research has pointed towards a potential role for mutations in nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) in promoting the onset and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by altering the microbiota of the gut. However, the relationship between toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and gut microbiota in IBD is not well understood. To shed light on this, the interaction between TLR4 and gut microbiota was studied using a mouse model of IBD.
METHODS: To examine the function of TLR4 signaling in intestinal injury repair, researchers developed Dextran Sulfate Sodium Salt (DSS)-induced colitis and injury models in both wild-type (WT) mice and TLR4 knockout (TLR4-KO) mice. To assess changes in the gut microbiota, 16S rRNA sequencing was conducted on fecal samples from both the TLR4-KO and WT enteritis mouse models.
RESULTS: The data obtained depicted a protective function of TLR4 against DSS-induced colitis. The gut microbiota composition was found to vary considerably between the WT and TLR4-KO mice groups as indicated by β-diversity analysis and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) cluster. Statistical analysis of microbial multivariate variables depicted an elevated abundance of Escherichia coli/Shigella, Gammaproteobacteria, Tenerlcutes, Deferribacteres, Enterobacteria, Rikenellaceae, and Proteobacteria in the gut microbiota of TLR4-KO mice, whereas there was a considerable reduction in Bacteroidetes at five different levels of the phylogenetic hierarchy including phylum, class, order, family, and genus in comparison with the WT control.
CONCLUSIONS: TLR4 may protect intestinal epithelial cells from damage in response to DSS-induced injury by controlling the microbiota in the gut.