World Neurosurg. 2023 Sep 2:S1878-8750(23)01234-2. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2023.08.121. Online ahead of print.
Knowing the motor branches and variations of the musculocutaneous nerve to the muscles along its course will facilitate the treatment of flexor spasticity and supracondylar fractures of the humerus in order to minimize nerve lesion. In fetal cadavers, the purpose of our study was to determine the number and course of the formation variations and motor branches of the musculocutaneous nerve. The significance of studying fetal nerve variations is due to injury to the brachial plexus roots during birth. Our study was conducted using the anatomical dissection technique on 102 upper limbs from 51 fetuses ages ranged from 17 to 40 weeks. Throughout its course, the variations and motor branches of the musculocutaneous nerve were analyzed. In 13.7% of cases, the musculocutaneous nerve did not piercing the coracobrachialis. The musculocutaneous nerve gave the muscles 1-3 motor branches. Additionally, motor branches terminated with 1-7 fringes. The biceps brachii motor branches of the musculocutaneous nerve were typed. Accordingly, 15.6% were type 1A, 3.9% were type 1B, 35.4% were type 1C, and 19.6% were type 1D. It was determined that 23.5% of the extremities were type 2 and that 1.9% were type 3. The distance between the musculocutaneous nerve’s motor branches and the acromion was proportional to the arm’s length. There were no statistically significant differences between the sides and genders for any measurement. Our study’s findings will aid in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatrics, orthopedics, surgical sciences, and radiology conditions. It reduces the risk of iatrogenic injury and postoperative complications. We also believe that our research will serve as a resource for anatomists and other scientists.