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Microbial etiology and antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections in children; view from an area where antibiotics are overused

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2023 Aug;27(16):7680-7687. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202308_33421.


OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to determine the uropathogenic causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) and their incidences, assess their antibiotic resistance, and determine an appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment strategy.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the culture and antibiogram results of urine cultures of 49,706 patients aged 1 day to 18 years who applied to Diyarbakır Children’s Hospital between March 2018 and October 2022.

RESULTS: A total of 4,064 cases meeting the study criteria were recorded. Girls comprised 76.7% of the study population. While reproduction in urine culture was more common in boys in the 0-1 age group, there was a decrease in the number of boys with increasing age, and the most common culture growth was seen in girls in the 5-10 age group (p<0.001). Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections were more common in girls, while non-E. coli infections were more common in boys (p<0.001). Gram-negative bacterial growth in urine cultures was the most common growth type. In descending order, E. coli was grown in 68.1% of all cultures, Klebsiella spp in 12.6%, and Proteus spp in 3.9%. Less commonly, Pseudomonas spp (2.8%), Enterobacter spp (1.5%), and fungi (1.1%) were grown. Antibiotic resistance/sensitivity tests revealed resistance patterns most commonly against ampicillin (73.2%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (57.9%), cefuroxime axetil (46.7%), cefixime (51%), and ceftriaxone (40.5%), and less commonly against meropenem (1.7%), amikacin (2.4%), and nitrofurantoin (9.8%). Escherichia coli showed resistance most commonly against ampicillin (69.8%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (59.7%), and cefixime (51.3%), while non-E.coli bacteria showed resistance most commonly against ampicillin (84.6%), amoxicillin (52.0%), and cefixime (50%). Resistance against nitrofurantoin was lower in E. coli infections than non-E. coli infections, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (3.7% and 27%, respectively; p=0.149). In contrast, resistance against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was more common in E. coli infections than non-E. coli infections, although the difference was not statistically significant (42% and 29.7%, respectively; p=0.093).

CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that resistance has developed at very high rates against many oral and parenteral antibiotics that we use in the treatment of UTIs. If our rate of antibiotic use continues to increase this way, it is predicted that UTIs will, unfortunately, become untreatable with oral antibiotics. This upsetting point reached by our country, which is the state that uses antibiotics the most in Europe, exemplifies the importance of rational antibiotic use for the whole world.

PMID:37667945 | DOI:10.26355/eurrev_202308_33421

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