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Relationships of Macular Functional Impairment With Structural and Vascular Changes According to Glaucoma Severity

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2023 Sep 1;64(12):5. doi: 10.1167/iovs.64.12.5.


PURPOSE: To determine the pointwise relationships of central visual field (VF) defects with macular ganglion cell loss and macular vessel density (VD) loss during various stages of glaucoma.

METHODS: Eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) were subjected to optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) to evaluate macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness and macular VD in the superficial and deep vascular complexes (SVC and DVC). OCT, OCTA, and VF locations were matched after correcting for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) displacement. Pointwise correlations of GCL thickness and VDs of the SVC and DVC with central VF sensitivity (VFS) were evaluated by Pearson’s correlation analysis and compared in eyes with early and advanced POAG by Meng’s test.

RESULTS: Of the 100 eyes, 52 and 48 were classified as early and advanced POAG. Macular VD showed overall better correlation with central VFS than GCL thickness in both the early and advanced groups. SVC density showed the strongest correlation with central VFS in all groups (R = 0.327 in early group, R = 0.325 in advanced group, all P < 0.001). Although DVC density showed better correlation with VFS (R = 0.311) than GCL thickness (R = 0.212) in the early group (P < 0.001), the correlation was comparable in the advanced group (R = 0.199 and 0.176, respectively, P = 0.254).

CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for RGC displacement, macular SVC density was better correlated with central VFS than macular GCL thickness in both early and advanced POAG. Macular DVC density showed better correlation with VFS than GCL thickness in early but not in advanced POAG, indicating that DVC loss may be involved in early central VF loss.

PMID:37669065 | DOI:10.1167/iovs.64.12.5

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