Qual Life Res. 2023 Sep 6. doi: 10.1007/s11136-023-03506-x. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: Tuberculosis (TB) has far-reaching effects on the social, mental, and emotional well-being of patients and consequently, their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Few studies in Nigeria have examined changes in quality of life over the course of treatment. changes in (PTB) and factors associated with HRQOL.
METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted with patients recruited from health facilities in Lagos State. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short-Form (WHOQOL-BREF) was used to assess HRQOL. A semi-structured questionnaire was also administered to elicit information on socio-demographic characteristics and the medical and social history of the respondents. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with polynomial contrasts was used to assess how domain scores varied over time. Multivariable analysis was conducted using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to assess change in HRQOL and its predictors.
RESULTS: Two hundred and ten patients, predominantly male [108 (63.3%)] were recruited. The mean age was 36.7 ± 12.3 years. The HRQOL was impaired in all four domains at baseline. However, HRQOL scores increased over the treatment period with the largest improvement being in the ‘environment’ domain, where mean scores increased from 45.27 ± 14.59 to 61.28 ± 15.86. The proportion of respondents that expressed satisfaction with their health increased from 13.5% at baseline to 55.7% at the end of treatment. Low socio-economic status, delay in presentation, and an HIV-positive status were found to be significantly associated with reduced HRQOL at baseline (p < 0.05). In the multivariable longitudinal analysis, patients who were employed had higher HRQOL scores while persistent symptoms and a delay in presentation (≥ 4 weeks) were negatively associated with change in HRQOL scores over the course of treatment.
CONCLUSION: The HRQOL of respondents progressively improved over the six-month treatment period. However, change in HRQOL was influenced by a delay in presentation and persistence of symptoms. The study also highlights the need for increased recognition of patient-reported outcomes as an adjunct outcome measure.